Definition - What does Petition mean?
A petition is a formal demand for something, such as a hearing.
A petition that reaches the court must be ruled upon, and is followed by a process through which the action that is being petitioned for proceeds. The determination is not known; the only certainty is that it will be possible to gain the court's attention in this regard.
Justipedia explains Petition
Although a petition can be a formal request to the court for any action, it is most often used in divorce matters (a petition for divorce).
Bankruptcies are also petitioned for in that the bankrupt person must gain the court's permission to proceed with a bankruptcy.
A petition could be considered as a form of protest when it is made by one or more persons in an attempt to change a law or the actions of a third party.