Pinkerton liability is a law stating that a person involved in a conspiracy can be held liable for substantive crimes committed by co-conspirators in certain situations. This means that if a person commits the first part of a crime, but does not participate in the second part of a crime, then they could still be held liable in some cases.
Walk and turn is a standard field sobriety test used by law enforcement to determine whether an individual driving a motor vehicle is under the influence of alcohol or drugs. It is a test that is commonly used on individuals suspected of driving under the influence (DUI) or driving while impaired (DWI). In the walk-and-turn test, the individual suspected of being impaired is asked to walk heel-to-toe in a straight line for nine steps. Then, turn on one foot and return in the same way. Law enforcement on the scene observes the individual and looks for signs of impairment.
When law enforcement officers catch an individual on the roads that they suspect of driving under the influence (DUI/DWI), they subject that individuals to a field sobriety test. Walk and turn is one of the most commonly used field sobriety tests. It was developed by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) in conjunction with the Southern California Research Institute. According to various studies, the walk-and-turn test is accurate about 68% of the time.